While privacy leads the discussion on ethics for social media harvesting and curation, it is rarely isolated. Often associated with privacy are consent, treatment of users and their creations, security, access, responsibility and control of content, transparency and use, as evidenced by the controversy over Facebook search mentioned above. There is currently no standard for navigating this web of ethical dilemmas; However, this could change very soon. Bryan Lewis and Caitlin Rivers await the review of their co-authored paper, “Ethical Research Standards in a World of Big Data,” which presents an ethical model for researchers with transparency, anonymity, control, monitoring, institutional review board, context, called “TACTICs.”  As a result of TACTICs, researchers would conduct transparent studies that are publicly available, respect the context of tweets, secure data that could reveal the identity of tweeters, not use Twitter data to obtain more information about tweeters elsewhere, would be required to obtain institutional review committee approval for studies requiring data collection from individuals, and respect users` privacy settings.  Although the TACTICs model was not created with collecting institutions in mind, cultural heritage organizations could argue for its wider acceptance and expect their researchers to adhere to the model. From an ethical perspective, the value of reliability is a prerequisite for successful risk management. This value is associated with safety culture as it refers to physical, mental and cultural safety. Therefore, the responsibility of managers is to create mental and physical safety environments based on openness to promote patient safety and quality of care. In addition, it is important for managers to foster multidisciplinary collaboration to enable transparent reporting (10). However, there are differences between legal and ethical standards. While legal standards are set by state laws, ethical standards do not necessarily have a legal basis. Legal standards are useful because they help people understand what they are not allowed to do, while ethical standards are primarily based on the human principles of right and wrong.
Legal standards allow authorities to apply rules when people do something illegal, whereas ethical standards do not. Beauchamp and Childress (1978) identified four biomedical principles: autonomy, charity, non-malevolence, and justice. The principles summarize in an abbreviated way the spirit of ethical intention. Beauchamp and Childress`s book (2013), now in its 7th edition, is a source of in-depth discussion of ethical principles. The concept of autonomy has evolved from paternalistic physicians with ethical decision-making power over patients empowered to participate in decisions about their own care to patients heavily armed with Internet resources and trying to assert themselves in all decision-making. This transition of authority has developed more slowly in the geriatric population, but as baby boomers age, they affirm this evolving norm of independence. However, autonomy does not negate responsibility. Health care is based on a partnership between the health care provider and the recipient. Everyone owes the other responsibility and respect.
The main task of the doctor or nurse after a detailed examination and treatment is the detailed recording and description of all events without any assumptions. If the investigations found evidence of negligence, that would be a very different discussion and the call to social services would be absolutely necessary. However, these principles and the Hippocratic Oath are not legally binding. Ethics cannot be enforced, but laws can. School nurses. Often try to involve children in certain decisions. Parents or guardians are the legal decision-makers for students; There may be some exceptions for emancipated or responsible minors. School nurses and other paediatric nurses often try to involve children in certain decisions when appropriate and appropriate to the child`s developmental abilities to make an informed decision (Dickey et al., 2002). Some children at age 11 have demonstrated the same informed decision-making skills as adults (Weithorn & Campbell, 1982), but Salter (2017) argues that children`s decision-making capacity does not confer decision-making authority and that parents should remain the final decision-makers for children. • What is ethical may be illegal.
For example, euthanasia may be considered ethical, but it is illegal in most jurisdictions. The confusing ethical questions raised by social media collection often lack clear answers and sometimes only lead to other questions. Some of them even appear to be transplants from traditional archiving and research. These questions include: What social media content should be ethically preserved? What, if anything, is ethical about extracting information from this content? What harvesting and conservation methods are ethically justifiable? How do you balance their personal and professional ethical responsibilities? School nurses are a unique group. You can be responsible for hundreds of students; Some may have more than 1000 students in their care. You must have broad knowledge to assess, treat or manage common pediatric diseases and injuries, as well as the ability to manage health emergencies and disasters. In addition, they must follow the rules, guidelines and regulations that apply to their educational environment and adhere to their state`s Nursing Practice Act. The overall goals of school nurses are student health, safety and learning. In this research, they may encounter countless ethical problems. It is rare in the literature to contain specific ethical issues faced by school nurses. This article fills this gap by providing a brief literature review and discussion of ethical concepts in the context of school nursing, ethical decision-making, and other relevant concepts such as moral distress, civil courage.
There are also recommendations and resources for school nurses. This report presents various aspects of patient safety with respect to root cause analysis (CRA) and risk management, the role of human resources, the role of professionalism, the need to inform parents (disclosure of medical errors) and forensic pathology with a focus on ethical aspects. In this triage, the school nurse can more clearly articulate the ethical issues and the rationale for the final decision. Considering the information in the “Clinical indications” and “Patient preferences” fields should be a priority when making decisions, but if this process does not help solve the problem, the Lower Quality of Life and Contextual Features boxes should be reviewed. This is a very brief analysis of the 4-topic model (Jonsen et al., 2015), but it shows how a number of key factors and questions can be considered. Depending on these factors, all ethical principles may apply. In this triage, the school nurse can more clearly articulate the ethical issues and the rationale for the final decision. The American Nurses Association maintains the current Code of Ethics for the Nursing Profession; it is entitled Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements; Last amended in 2015, it contains nine provisions detailing “the ethical obligations of all nurses.” It “deals with the individual and collective intentions and actions of nursing; it requires every nurse to demonstrate ethical competence in professional life” (ANA, 2015). Guidelines for ethical practices have been in place since the beginning of nursing.
An ethical promise for nurses – a modified version of the Hippocratic Oath called the Nightingale Pledge – was developed by Lystra Gretter in 1893. The first code of ethics for nurses was proposed by the American Nurses Association in 1926 and adopted in 1950 (Lyons, 2011). A question of law can be defined as a question or situation that primarily involves the application of legal principles. Legal problems arise due to non-compliance or non-compliance with the principles of law, which can be considered a violation of the law. These matters are generally punishable by law and have consequences imposed by the applicable law of a country. An organization that engages in illegal activities would be raising legal issues, which would amount to legally punishing the company for its illegal conduct. Angela, a Grade 10 student, has migraines. Recently, his mother Angela gave him one of her sedatives (alprazolam; Xanax™) at the onset of migraines, and it helped prevent headaches from getting worse. Angela brought two pills to school in a small plastic bag that she kept in her purse. When she started having migraines, she took one of the pills.
One teacher observed this and, in accordance with the school`s “zero tolerance” policy, the teacher accompanied Angela to the principal. Angela was suspended from school. The “possession” and taking of a drug that had not been approved through the appropriate channels violated a directive. The consequences of Angela`s action, taking alprazolam, led to the fact that the appearance of migraines was counteracted, which led to a “good” result. But the “act” of possessing and taking the drug violated guidelines. An ethics officer who focuses on the act would support the decision to suspend Angela rather than consider the consequences of her act. The protection of patients` private data is one of the most important ethical and legal issues in healthcare. Conversations between a doctor and a patient are strictly confidential, as is information about a person`s state of health.